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Wood and Hardware: Industrial Arts Class Resources. Industrial arts classes, commonly referred to as “shop classes” in the United States, are educational programs which teach and practice the fabrication of objects in metal and/or wood using various machine and hand powered tools. View Test Prep - Chemistry Fall Semester Midterm Study Guide.pdf from CHEM 44230991 at Dupont Manual High School. Chemistry Fall Semester Midterm Study Guide 1. Three players were injured and some said they were subjected to racial taunts after a Confederate flag was displayed during the first quarter of a high school football game in Denver, according to. Manual training received strong support and spread rapidly. By 1900, 100 cities provided it in high schools. In 1915 when Woodward’s Manual Training School closed, the St. Louis public schools accepted the responsibility for vocational training. “DuPont Manual High School should remain selective but add a. 2170311 Silverado/Sierra Passenger Side Manual Replacement Mirror Cover Fits Full-Size Standard Bed w/ Extended Crew Cab - (DuPont Tyvek, White) University of Alabama BAMA Girl Crimson Tide Collegiate Novelty Metal License Wolo Model 325-2T Maxi Sound Universal Chrome Low And.

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The Manual Training movement was the precursor to the vocational training programs in our schools today. First used in the United States in the 1870’s in the training of engineers, the movement spread rapidly to general public education.

Manual training emphasized the intellectual and social development associated with the practical training of the hand and the eye. In its most basic sense, manual training was the teaching of both wood and metal working, with the accompanying argument that this teaching improved perception, observation, practical judgment, visual accuracy, manual dexterity and taught students the power of doing things instead of merely thinking about them, talking about them, and writing about them. Manual training was not, however, intended to teach a specific trade. This was perceived as too narrow and intellectually limiting for a general education. Manual training would instead be an enhancement to the traditional curriculum, not a replacement, and would thereby help achieve the full development and potential of the individual. The student would learn to skillfully use tools in drafting, mechanics, wood or metal working and then would be able to transfer this knowledge to almost any kind of tool or setting.

Efforts to introduce the practical and manual arts into the traditional humanist curriculum in the United States goes back at least as far as the late 18th century with the establishment of colleges devoted to mechanics and agriculture. Interest in including manual arts in general public education across the country developed partly as a result of an acute shortage of skilled labor during the Civil War. Leaders of industry and statesmen turned to the schools to develop training programs to replace and supplement the apprenticeship system.

Some American educators looked to Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) for inspiration. Pestalozzi, a Swiss educator who is considered the 'father of manual training', established a school in Europe where manual work was combined with general education. He believed that a sound education needed to include both vocational and general education. He influenced a number of prominent American educators in the late 1800’s, including John O. Runkle, president of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and professor of mathematics and Calvin M. Woodward, dean of the Polytechnic faculty at Washington University in St. Louis.

Following Pestalozzi’s ideas, John O. Runkle sought to infuse into the training of engineers a more practical knowledge of tools and basic mechanics. Another influence came at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1876, where Runkle was exposed to the series of graded exercises designed to teach technical skills to students of the Imperial Technical School in St. Petersburg, Russia. Runkle became a proponent of using this Russian system of manual training in teaching technical skills in general education as well as in engineering.

In 1879, Calvin M. Woodward opened the Manual Training School for boys in St. Louis. His curriculum included science, mathematics, language, literature, history, drawing and shop work. Shop was included to keep instruction more interesting, to provide learning in the use of basic tools common to a variety of jobs and to increase general education. Woodward felt that manual training was essential for proper intellectual and moral education and was also a way of restoring the value and dignity of hand labor. He advocated adding manual training to the traditional curriculum in order to bring education in line with the demands of modern society. Manual training would help students realize at any early age the connection between knowing and doing. 'The contrast between the listless and often inattentive attitude of children occupied with some ordinary class-lesson, and the eager eyes and nimble fingers of the same children at the carpenter’s or modeling bench, is most instructive,' wrote Sir Philip Magnus, one of the early supporters of manual training.

Critics of the manual training movement argued that manual training did not belong in the schools and if introduced would hinder students’ intellectual and moral development. Debate centered on whether schools should respond to the pressures of the industrial society’s desire to have students prepared in specialized skill areas. Proponents recognized the potential for intellectual development through the training of the hand and the eye as well as the potential for occupational payoff. Initial introduction of manual training ideas into the schools at large was encouraged on the basis of the perceived economic benefits to the boy or girl receiving the training and to the overall economy of the region.

As manual training programs were developed in schools by adding study in the areas of drafting or mechanics, the curriculum retained its rigorous preparation for college entrance requirements and, unlike vocational programs today, did not represent any educational dead end for the student. Manual training received strong support and spread rapidly. By 1900, 100 cities provided it in high schools. In 1915 when Woodward’s Manual Training School closed, the St. Louis public schools accepted the responsibility for vocational training. The direct benefits of occupational skills as opposed to the remote values associated with completing a liberal education 'through the hand' began to have a greater appeal. In the years following, manual training became more subject centered, required the completion of specific exercises and was oriented to skill development. Vocational education in secondary schools had become an accepted part of American education.


Firth, G.R. and Kimpston, R.D. The Curricular Continuum in Perspective. F.E. Peacock Publishers, Inc., Illinois, 1973.

Kliebard, Herbert M. The Struggle for the American Curriculum 1893-1958. Routledge & Kegan Paul, New York,

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Woodward, C.M. The Manual Training School. Arno Press and the New York Times, New York, 1969.

Prepared by Diane Westerink


Like most juniors at Manual High School, in the impoverished northeast quarter of Denver, Colorado, Norberto Felix-Cruz was Mexican, multiply pierced, and laden with chains. Although he was quiet by nature, he clanked when he walked. On his way to school from the small house he shared with many relatives, he sometimes passed a park with brown grass and a curious sign: “ ’Tis not birth nor wealth nor state, but get up and get which makes any man great.” Norberto wasn’t expecting greatness, however, and he often arrived late. His departures were just as unhurried. Manual’s peacock-blue hallways were peaceful, owing to the presence of armed police officers, and he found them a good place to linger.

As classes let out one afternoon last spring, he was crouched in front of a metal bookcase in Manual’s basement, smoothing and stowing the fat triangle of a folded American flag. This was his duty as battalion commander of the Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps, one of the few elective courses available at Manual, and the only one with negative social status. When the previous commander was discharged—she was pregnant and had started to show—the post had not been hotly contested. Still, Norberto was grateful to J.R.O.T.C. for his appointment, because it had prompted his mother to brag about him for the first time since he shamed his family by picking up a drug charge, freshman year. He was grateful, too, he said, because “J.R.O.T.C. really stands for free food—Country Buffet after Color Guard, all you can eat, and shrimps and wings and chimichangas.” Thanks to these subsidized meals, he had progressed since freshman year from scrawny to nearly imposing, an impression that he enhanced with black work boots, a pencil-line goatee, glittery earrings, and a tendency to walk with his chin down and eyes half-lidded. It was a stride of wary resolve, Norberto hoped, and he adopted it as he made his way from the J.R.O.T.C. office, past the cops, and out to the aluminum bleachers by the track, where some of his classmates were taking the sun.

“You got the brains of a stripper,” a sophomore boy was saying to a plump, ponytailed girl (another beneficiary of J.R.O.T.C. food) who was dating an older guy whom nobody liked. Seeing Norberto, the boy changed the subject: “Hey, Norberto, you know how people get the teardrop tattoo on their cheek the first time they kill someone? My friend—I’m serious—he put the name of the guy on his face!”

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Norberto worked construction most afternoons, with his father, who had brought his family up from Durango ten years earlier. They had a drywall job to finish by the evening. Now, though, Norberto sat and stretched his legs. The bleachers offered a view of the Rockies, forty miles west, and, against them, the towers and cranes of downtown Denver. But his focus soon drifted to the plank on which he sat, which had been freshly tagged with gang graffiti. Studying the elaborate red scrawl, he said to his friends, “The person who did this tag didn’t know how to spell the name Chici.” The Chici 30s, a local gang, were in ascendance at Manual now that members of their rival gang, the Oldies, had dropped out. “See,” he said, “they think the word ‘Chici’ begins with a ‘Q.’ ”

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“So what’s the right way to spell it?” someone asked. It was quiet then, until the girl with the ponytail protested, “Norberto, stop looking to me like that, like you’re some teacher!”

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“Well, I don’t care to know,” another boy said. “I don’t like those dudes, remember?”

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“No wonder the whole city thinks we’re stupid,” Norberto said, addressing a recent turn of events that some on the bleachers still refused to accept. “Like, that’s our education in a nutshell—we can’t even spell our own gangs right.”

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