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Vande Mataram
Studio album by
ReleasedAugust 12, 1997[1]
Panchathan Record Inn
(Chennai, India)
Sarm West Studios
(London, UK)
Metropolis Studios
(London, UK)
Reaktor Studios
(London, UK)
Sargam Studios
(Lahore, Pakistan)
XIC Studios
(Mumbai, India)
GenreWorld music, Indian pop, Folk rock[2]
LabelColumbia/SME Records
CK 68525 (North America)
488709 (international)
ProducerA. R. Rahman
Kanika Myer Bharat

Vande Mataram is a 1997 studio album by Indian musician A. R. Rahman. It is Sony Music India's largest-selling non-film album to date.[3] It released on December 9, 1997 by Sony's music labels Columbia Records and SME Records. It was released on the Golden Jubilee anniversary of India's independence and has been instrumental in instilling a sense of patriotic pride and national unity amongst the people of India. Ever since release, both the album and its title song 'Maa Tujhe Salaam' have had a profoundly positive and unifying impact on the nationalistic and patriotic mood of the country. The album also features 'Gurus of Peace' which Rahman recorded with the late Pakistani Qawwali singer Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan.

A critical and commercial hit, the title song from the album is one of India's most popular songs of all time. Sung by Rahman himself, the song has come to represent a feeling of patriotic unity for India and has been performed or played at several national and regional events in the country. The popularity of the song was such that in 2002, when BBC World Service conducted an international poll to choose the ten most famous songs of all time from around 7000 songs selected from all over the world, 'Maa Tujhe Salaam' was voted second.[4] The track also holds two Guinness World Records for being the song performed in the most number of languages. Indian singer Sai 'Psychuck' Manapragada performed the track in 265 different languages (individually) and again in 277 languages (with chorus) to achieve this feat twice.[5] Rahman was also issued an Guinness World Record certificate for being the composer of the original song which was ceremoniously presented to Rahman after his concert in Oakland, CA, USA on September 12, 2010.[6]

The album won the 1997 Screen Videocon Award for Best Non-Film Album.[7]

  • 6Album credits


In 1996, when Rahman had gone to Bombay (now Mumbai) to attend the Screen Awards ceremony, he met his childhood friend Bharat Bala. During this meeting both had discussed a proposal for an album to commemorate 50 years of Indian Independence in 1997. In 1997, the International music label, Sony Music, entered the Indian market in a big way. They were looking to promote Indian artistes internationally. And the first person to be signed up by Sony Music from the Indian sub-continent was A.R.Rahman, on a three-album contract. The financial details of the contract were not disclosed but Industry experts believe it to be the largest of its kind in India. Rahman suggested the idea that he had discussed with Bharat to Sony Music India and was immediately accepted. Called Vande Mataram, it was a tribute to the motherland and featured songs to mark the three colours of the Indian Flag .[8]

A. R. Rahman conceptualized the album to commemorate the fifty years of India's independence and to pay tribute to India. Prior to the release, Rahman said: 'I dedicate this album to the future generations of India. I wish that this album inspires them to grow up with wealth of human values and ethics that this country is made of'.[9] Several postcards were supplied with the album, so as to spread messages of aesthetic values. The themes were

  • Freedom
  • Love
  • Harmony
  • Peace


Sony asked him to choose from any of its international stars to work with and supposedly even suggested the name of Celine Dion. But Rahman settled, very appropriately, for the Pakistani Sufi music singer Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and Sting's guitarist Dominic Miller. Rahman had decided that he would definitely work with Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan after he attended his performance in Delhi. Explaining his choice, 'I don't want to collaborate with just a name. I must feel something for the person and relate with his work. I've seen several famous names collaborating on songs and albums , but they remain just two names. There's no chemistry. It's like oil and water. They can' t come together.' He went all the way to Pakistan to record the 'Gurus of Peace' number with Khan.[8] This is supposedly the first time that an Indian and Pakistani artiste have come together to create this kind of music.[9]Rahman worked overtime for this prestigious project that his film assignments went behind schedule.[8]

About the development of 'Maa Tujhe Salaam', Rahman says: 'In late January, on the 27th day of Ramzan, an auspicious time when legend has it that angels open the gates of heaven and all prayers are answered, I descended on my studio. It was 2 AM and my sound engineer had disappeared. And so I called Bala (Bharat Bala) and when he arrived I told him you're the sound engineer. And then I sang for the first time, a few verses for just the two of us. 'It was magical,' says Bala. 'He laughed, then he cried,' says Rahman.[1]

Rahman chose Mehboob, who had written songs for Bombay, Rangeela etc. for Rahman, as the lyricist. He was given an instruction: no archaic verse. Don't create anything that 'youngsters would respect but never sing', says Mehboob.[1]

Chaiyya Chaiyya was originally composed for the album. But as it didn't fit it, it was replaced for the film Dil Se..


In March 1997, amid Sony Music executives in Mumbai, came a sort of penultimate test. Sridhar Subramaniam, director, marketing, Sony Music India says: 'Everybody was really nervous. It's an exhausting song and Davis Martin, head of Sony Music Asia doesn't speak a word of Hindi, but in 40 seconds we knew. It was fresh, new.' It got better. In May, at a Sony conference in Manila, where the bigger the name you can drop means the more attention you get, they got 20 minutes. When the songs from the album were played, pre-release, at the Sony Music conference in Manila, Sony Music executives representing various Sony Music sub-labels reportedly went berserk and clamoured for the international rights of the album. They played the song; pandemonium reigned. The head of Columbia records (a Sony label) said, 'It's unbelievable, I want it.' The head of Epic records (another Sony label) said, 'I don't care, I want it.' Says Subramaniam: 'It was the hit of the conference.'[1]

Amid great hype, the album was released on 12 August 1997, three days before the 50th anniversary of Indian independence. The Indian release had only 7 songs while the international release had two additional songs 'Masoom' and 'Musafir'. Later 'Masoom' was released in India in the album Gurus of Peace and 'Musafir' in the album MTV Total Mix.


The album was met with overwhelming responses. Rahman became the first Indian artist of popular music to go international when Vande Mataram was released simultaneously in 28 countries across the world. Rahman himself performed live at Vijay Chowk in New Delhi on the eve of the Golden Jubilee of Indian Independence to a packed audience that comprised the Prime Minister of India, Inder Kumar Gujral. The album was a big success, selling over 500,000 copies in the first week, and over 1.5 million copies in India during 1997.[1] It also did very well internationally, selling millions worldwide,[10] and becoming the largest selling Indian non-film album internationally.

Screen India's reviewer said, 'A. R. Rahman's tribute to India in its 50th year of independence was a well-synchronised effort. Both, Rahman's music and singing, were appreciated, and the lead track 'Maa Tujhe Salaam', with its brilliant orchestration, is a befitting '90s ode to the motherland. Another highlight is Rahman's duet with Ustad Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, 'Gurus of Peace'.'[11]Allmusic's Stephen Thomas Erlewine gave the album a rating of 4.5 out of 5 stars, describing it as 'a vibrant, exciting album that has the potential to reach beyond the traditional world music fan.'[12]

Initially there was some negative criticism against Rahman for using phrases of India's national song 'Vande Mataram' in the title track; 'Maa Tujhe Salaam'. With the immense popularity and widespread appeal for the song from all over India, much of this criticism was ignored. The song 'Maa Tujhe Salaam' got repeated airplay in the world music category on radio and television channels across the world.


Track listing[edit]

1'Maa Tujhe Salaam'A. R. Rahman6:11MehboobBacking vocals by Rita Campbell, Deepika Thathaal, Joy Rose, Chris Ballin, Sophia James
Percussion by Peter Lockett
Guitar by Mark James
Video Editing by Chetan Desai
2'Revival'A. R. Rahman7:40Bankim Chandra ChatterjeeTraditional Song
Backing vocals by Anuradha Sriram, Sujatha, Kalyani Menon & Seema
Percussion by Sivamani
Santoor by Srinivasalu
Saxophone by Chris 'Snake' Davis
Oboe by Sara Prosser
3'Gurus of Peace'Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, A. R. Rahman6:27Mehboob, Tim Cody & Dinesh KapoorBacking vocals by Katy Stephenson, Emma Bigwood, Gemma Austreng, Brittaney Love & Georgina Gill
Acoustic guitar by Mahesh Tinaikar
4'Tauba Tauba'A. R. Rahman6:11MehboobIndian Rhythms by Laxmi Narayan, Neelakantan & Veda
Shehnai by Appa Rao
5'Only You'A. R. Rahman5:40MehboobPercussion by Sivamani
Bass guitar by Keith Peters
6'Missing (Vande Mataram)'Instrumental5:11
7'Thai Manne Vanakkam'A. R. Rahman6:11VairamuthuTamil version of 'Maa Tujhe Salaam'
8'Masoom'A. R. Rahman6:08GulzarSitar by Janardhanan
9'Musafir'A. R. Rahman, Faye5:43Tim Kody, Kanika Myer BharatPercussion by Peter Lockett
Oboe by Sara Prosser
  • The tracks 'Maa Tujhe Salaam', 'Revival', and 'Gurus of Peace' represent the three colours - saffron, white and green respectively - of the national flag.[9]
  • 'Revival' and 'Missing' are both arrangements of Vande Mataram.
  • 'Musafir' and 'Gurus of Peace' were partial reuses of Rahman's earlier film songs, 'Ottagathai Kattiko' (from Gentleman) and 'Porale Ponnuthayi' (from Karuththamma) respectively.
  • 'Gurus of Peace' was the only song sung by Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan for Rahman and this was one of the last songs of him as he died some months later. As a tribute to him, Rahman released an album titled Gurus of Peace.

Album credits[edit]


  • A. R. Rahman – vocals
  • Pete Lockett – Percussion
  • Sivamani – Percussion
  • Mark James – Guitar
  • Sara Prosser – Oboe
  • Ganesh Rajagopalan - Violin
  • Srinivasalu - Santoor
  • Dominic Miller - Acoustic guitar
  • Mahesh Tinaikar - Acoustic guitar
  • Keith Peters - Bass guitar
  • Appa Rao - Shehnai
  • Chris 'Snake' Davis - Saxophone
  • Janardhanan - Sitar


  • Producers: A. R. Rahman, Kanika Myer Bharat, Bharatbala
  • Engineers: H. Sridhar, Paul Wright, Shivakumar
  • Mixing: H. Sridhar
  • Programming: A. R. Rahman, Yak Bondy

Post production[edit]

  • Chetan Desai


  • Art direction: Sunil Mahadik
  • Oil on canvas: Thotta Tharani
  • Photography: Thejal Patni
  • Inlay design: Manjiri Rajopadhye


Stanford Raagapella, a South Asian fusion a cappella group, has created an a cappella version of the song Maa Tujhe Salaam[13]


  1. ^ abcde'A Song for India'. India Today. 1 September 1997. Archived from the original on 2 March 1999.
  2. ^'A.R. Rahman – Vande Mataram'. Discogs. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
  3. ^Salma Khatib (22 September 2000). 'Indi-pop: Down But Not Out'. Screen India. Archived from the original on 20 January 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
  4. ^The Worlds Top Ten — BBC World Service
  5. ^'NRI songster storms into Guinness'. The Hindu. 2010-08-20. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  6. ^AR Rahman Guinness World Record.
  7. ^'Screen Videocon Award Winners'. Screen India. 1997-01-23. Archived from the original on 2009-07-03. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
  8. ^ abc'Artist of the Month: AR Rahman'. TFM. January 2006.
  9. ^ abc'Sony to launch A R Rahman as international artiste on Independence Day'. Rediff. August 1997. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  10. ^Mathai, Kamini (2009). A. R. Rahman: The Musical Storm. Penguin Group. p. 160. ISBN9788184758238.
  11. ^'Audio Reviews: The Best of 1997'. Screen India. 1997. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
  12. ^'A.R. Rahman - Vande Mataram'. Allmusic. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
  13. ^'Stanford Raagapella'. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
Retrieved from ''
Vande Mataram
English: Vande Mātaram
वन्दे मातरम् (Sanskrit pronunciation)
বন্দে মাতরম্ (Bengali pronunciation)- original pronunciation.
National song of India
LyricsBankim Chandra Chatterjee, Anandamath (1882)
MusicHemanta Mukherjee, Jadunath Bhattacharya
Adopted24 January 1950
(after independence)
Music of India
  • Classical
  • Sufi


  • Bhangra
  • Filmi
  • Indi-pop
  • Rock
Media and performance
Music awards
Music festivals
Music media
Nationalistic and patriotic songs
National anthemJana Gana Mana
Regional music
  • Tamil Nadu

Vande Mataram (also pronounced Bande Mataram) (IAST: Vande Mātaram) (transl. Mother, I bow to thee) is a Bengali poem written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in 1870s, which he included in his 1882 novel Anandamath. The poem was first sung by Rabindranath Tagore in 1896.[1] The first two verses of the song were adopted as the National Song of India in October 1937 by the Congress Working Committee prior to the end of colonial rule in August 1947.[2][3][4]

An ode to the Motherland, it was written in Bengali script in the novel Anandmath.[5] The title 'Bande Mataram' means 'I praise thee, Mother' or 'I praise to thee, Mother'.[1][6] The 'mother goddess' in later verses of the song has been interpreted as the motherland of the people – Bangamata (Mother Bengal) and Bharat Mata (Mother India),[7][8] though the text does not mention this explicitly.

It played a vital role in the Indian independence movement, first sung in a political context by Rabindranath Tagore at the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.[9] It became a popular marching song for political activism and Indian freedom movement in 1905.[1] Spiritual Indian nationalist and philosopher Sri Aurobindo referred it as 'National Anthem of Bengal'.[10] The song and the novel containing it was banned by the British government, but workers and general public defied the ban, many went to colonial prisons repeatedly for singing it, and the ban was overturned by the Indians after they gained independence from the colonial rule.[11][12]

In 1950 (after India's independence), the first two verses of the song were declared the 'national song' of the Republic of India, distinct from the national anthem of India, Jana Gana Mana. The first two verses of the song are an abstract reference to mother and motherland, they do not mention any Hindu deity by name, unlike later verses that do mention goddesses such as Durga.[13][14] There is no time limit or circumstantial specification for the rendition of this song [unlike the national anthem Jana Gana Mana that specifies 52 seconds].[15]

  • 2Lyrics of the National Song
  • 3Translation
  • 4History and significance


The root of the Sanskrit word Vande is Vand, which appears in Rigveda and other Vedic texts.[16][note 1] According to Monier Monier-Williams, depending on the context, vand means 'to worship, to praise, celebrate, laud, extol, to show honour, do homage, salute respectfully', or 'deferentially, venerate, worship, adore', or 'to offer anything respectfully to'.[16][17] The word Mātaram has Indo-European roots in mātár- (Sanskrit), méter (Greek), mâter (Latin) which mean 'mother'.[18][19]

Lyrics of the National Song[edit]

The first two verses of Vande Mataram adopted as the 'National Song' read as follows:

Bengali script[20]Bengali phonemic transcriptionDevnagari scriptIAST transliteration[9][21]

বন্দে মাতরম্৷
সুজলাং সুফলাং
বন্দে মাতরম্৷.
সুখদাং বরদাং
বন্দে মাতরম্৷

bônde matôrôm
sujôlang suphôlang
shôsyô shyamôlang
bônde matôrôm
shubhrô jyotsna
pulôkitô jaminim
phullô kusumitô
sukhôdang bôrôdang
bônde matôrôm

वन्दे मातरम्।
सुजलाम् सुफलाम्
शस्यश्यामला मातरम्।
वन्दे मातरम्।
सुमधुर भाषिणीम्
सुखदाम् वरदाम्
वन्दे मातरम्।

vande mātaram
sujalāṃ suphalāṃ
śasya śyāmalāṃ
vande mātaram
śubhra jyotsnām
pulakita yāminīm
phoolla kusumita
sumadhuram bhāṣiṇīm
sukhadāṃ varadāṃ
vande mātaram



The complete original lyrics of the Vande Mataram is available at Vande Mataram – via Wikisource..

বন্দে মাতরম্ (Bengali Script)Latin transliteration (IAST)वन्दे मातरम् (Devanagari transliteration)

বন্দে মাতরম্ ৷
সুজলাং সুফলাং
মাতরম্ !
সুহাসিনীং সুমধুরভাষিণীম্
সুখদাং বরদাং মাতরম্ ৷৷
অবলা কেন মা এত বলে !
নমামি তরিণীং
মাতরম্ ৷
তুমি বিদ্যা তুমি ধর্ম্ম[a]
তুমি হৃদি তুমি মর্ম্ম[b]
ত্বং হি প্রাণাঃ শরীরে ৷
বাহুতে তুমি মা শক্তি,
হৃদয়ে তুমি মা ভক্তি,
তোমারই প্রতিমা গড়ি মন্দিরে মন্দিরে ৷
ত্বং হি দুর্গা দশপ্রহরণধারিণী
কমলা কমল-দলবিহারিণী
বাণী বিদ্যাদায়িণী
নমামি ত্বাং
নমামি কমলাম্
অমলাং অতুলাম্,
সুজলাং সুফলাং
বন্দে মাতরম্
শ্যামলাং সরলাং
সুস্মিতাং ভূষিতাম্
ধরণীং ভরণীম্
মাতরম্ ৷

Bande[c] Mātaram.
Sujalāṃ suphalām
Suhāsinīṃ sumadhurabhāṣinīm
Sukhadāṃ baradāṃ[d] Mātaram.
Abalā[f] kena mā eta bale[g]!
Namāmi tarinīṃ
Tumi bidyā[j] tumi dharma
Tumi hrṛdi tumi marma
Tbaṃ[k] hi prānāḥ śarīre.
Bāhute[l] tumi mā śakti,
Hṛdaye tumi mā bhakti,
Tomārai pratimā gaṛi mandire mandire.
Tbaṃ[m] hi Durgā daśapraharanadhārinī
Kamalā kamala-dalabihārinī
Bānī[n] bidyādāyinī[o]
Namāmi tbaṃ[p]
Namāmi kamalām
Amalāṃ atulām,
Sujalāṃ suphalām
Bande[q] Mātaram
Śyāmalām saralām
Susmitām bhūṣitām
Dharanīṃ bharanīṃ

वन्दे मातरम्
सुजलां सुफलाम्
सुहासिनीं सुमधुर भाषिणीम्
सुखदां वरदां मातरम्।।
अबला केन मा एत बॅले
नमामि तारिणीं
तुमि विद्या, तुमि धर्म
तुमि हृदि, तुमि मर्म
त्वम् हि प्राणा: शरीरे
बाहुते तुमि मा शक्ति,
हृदये तुमि मा भक्ति,
तोमारई प्रतिमा गडी मन्दिरे-मन्दिरे।।
त्वम् हि दुर्गा दशप्रहरणधारिणी
कमला कमलदलविहारिणी
वाणी विद्यादायिनी,
नमामि त्वाम्
नमामि कमलाम्
अमलां अतुलाम्
सुजलां सुफलाम्
वन्दे मातरम्
श्यामलाम् सरलाम्
सुस्मिताम् भूषिताम्
धरणीं भरणीं


The first translation of Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay's novel Anandamath, including the poem Vande Mataram, into English was by Nares Chandra Sen-Gupta, with the fifth edition published in 1906 titled 'The Abbey of Bliss'.[22]

Here is the translation in prose of the above two stanzas rendered by Sri Aurobindo Ghosh. This has also been adopted by the Government of India's national portal.[9] The original Vande Mataram consists of six stanzas and the translation in prose for the complete poem by Shri Aurobindo appeared in Karmayogin, 20 November 1909.[23]

Mother, I praise thee!
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
bright with orchard gleams,
Cool with thy winds of delight,
Dark fields waving Mother of might,
Mother free.
Glory of moonlight dreams,
Over thy branches and lordly streams,
Clad in thy blossoming trees,
Mother, giver of ease
Laughing low and sweet!
Mother I kiss thy feet,
Speaker sweet and low!
Mother, to thee I praise thee. [Verse 1]
Who hath said thou art weak in thy lands
When the swords flash out in seventy million hands
And seventy million voices roar
Thy dreadful name from shore to shore?
With many strengths who art mighty and stored,
To thee I call Mother and Lord!
Thou who savest, arise and save!
To her I cry who ever her foeman drove
Back from plain and Sea
And shook herself free. [Verse 2]
Thou art wisdom, thou art law,
Thou art heart, our soul, our breath
Thou art love divine, the awe
In our hearts that conquers death.
Thine the strength that nerves the arm,
Thine the beauty, thine the charm.
Every image made divine
In our temples is but thine. [Verse 3]
Thou art Durga, Lady and Queen,
With her hands that strike and her swords of sheen,
Thou art Lakshmi lotus-throned,
And the Muse a hundred-toned,
Pure and perfect without peer,
Mother lend thine ear,
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
Bright with thy orchard gleems,
Dark of hue O candid-fair [Verse 4]
In thy soul, with bejeweled hair
And thy glorious smile divine,
Loveliest of all earthly lands,
Showering wealth from well-stored hands!
Mother, mother mine!
Mother sweet, I praise thee,
Mother great and free! [Verse 5]

Apart from the above prose translation, Sri Aurobindo also translated Vande Mataram into a verse form known as Mother, I praise thee!.[24]Sri Aurobindo commented on his English translation of the poem that 'It is difficult to translate the National Song of India into verse in another language owing to its unique union of sweetness, simple directness and high poetic force.'[25]

Translation into other languages[edit]

Vande Mataram has inspired many Indian poets and has been translated into numerous Indian languages, such as Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Assamese, Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Punjabi Urdu and others.[26][note 2]

History and significance[edit]


Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay was one of the earliest graduates of the newly established Calcutta University. After his BA, he joined the British Indian government as a civil servant, becoming a Deputy Collector and later a Deputy Magistrate. Chattopadhyay was very interested in recent events in Indian and Bengali history, particularly the Revolt of 1857 and the previous century's Sanyasi Rebellion.[28] Around the same time, the administration was trying to promote 'God Save the Queen' as the anthem for Indian subjects, which Indian nationalists disliked. It is generally believed that the concept of Vande Mataram came to Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay when he was still a government official, around 1876.[29] He wrote Vande Mataram at Chuchurah, there is a white colour house of Adhya Family near river Hooghly (near Mallik Ghat).[citation needed]

Chattopadhyay wrote the poem in a spontaneous session using words from Sanskrit and Bengali. The poem was published in Chattopadhyay's book Anandamath (pronounced Anondomôţh in Bengali) in 1882, which is set in the events of the Sannyasi Rebellion.[28][29]Jadunath Bhattacharya was asked to set a tune for this poem just after it was written.[29]

Indian independence movement[edit]

Flag of India 1907

'Vande Mataram' was the whole nation's thought and motto for independence [from British rule] during the Indian independence movement. Large rallies, fermenting initially in Bengal, in the major metropolis of Calcutta, would work themselves up into a patriotic fervour by shouting the slogan 'Vande Mataram', or 'I praise the Mother(land)!' The British, fearful of the potential danger of an incited Indian populace, banned the book and made the recital of the song a crime.[11] The British colonial government imprisoned many independence activists for disobeying the order, but workers and general public repeatedly violated the ban many times by gathering together before British officials and singing it.[11] Rabindranath Tagore sang Vande Mataram in 1896 at the Calcutta Congress Session held at Beadon Square. Dakhina Charan Sen sang it five years later in 1901 at another session of the Congress at Calcutta. Poet Sarala Devi Chaudurani sang the song in the Benares Congress Session in 1905. Lala Lajpat Rai started a journal called Vande Mataram from Lahore.[29]Hiralal Sen made India's first political film in 1905 which ended with the chant. Matangini Hazra's last words as she was shot to death by the Crown police were Vande Mataram.[30]

Mahatma Gandhi supported the first two verses of Vande Mataram as a national song.[2]

In 1907, Bhikaiji Cama (1861–1936) created the first version of India's national flag (the Tiranga) in Stuttgart, Germany, in 1907. It had Vande Mataram written on it in the middle band.[31]Java rmi example.

A book titled Kranti Geetanjali published by Arya Printing Press (Lahore) and Bharatiya Press (Dehradun) in 1929 contains first two stanzas of this lyric on page 11[32] as Matra Vandana and a ghazal (Vande Mataram) composed by Bismil was also given on its back, i.e. page 12.[33] The book written by the famous martyr of Kakori Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil was proscribed by the then British government of India.

Mahatama Gandhi supported adoption and the singing of the Vande Mataram song. In January 1946, in a speech in Guwahati (Assam), he urged that 'Jai Hind should not replace Vande-mataram'. He reminded everyone present that Vande-mataram was being sung since the inception of the Congress. He supported the 'Jai Hind' greeting, but remanded that this greeting should not be to the exclusion of Vande Mataram. Gandhi was concerned that those who discarded Vande Mataram given the tradition of sacrifice behind it, one day would discard “Jai Hind” also.[34][note 3]

Adoption as 'national song'[edit]

Parts of the Vande Mataram was chosen as the 'national song' in 1937 by the Indian National Congress as it pursued independence of India from the British colonial rule, after a committee consisting of Maulana Azad, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Bose, Acharya Deva and Rabrindanath Tagore recommended the adoption.[36] The entire song was not selected by Hindu leaders in order to respect the sentiments of non-Hindus, and the gathering agreed that anyone should be free to sing an alternate 'unobjectionable song' at a national gathering if they do not want to sing Vande Mataram because they find it 'objectionable' for a personal reason.[36] According to the gathered leaders, including the Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore, though the first two stanzas began with an unexceptionable evocation of the beauty of the motherland, in later stanzas there are references to the Hindu goddess Durga. The Muslim League and Muhammad Ali Jinnah opposed the song. Thereafter, with the support of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawahar Lal Nehru, the Indian National Congress decided to adopt only the first two stanzas as the national song to be sung at public gatherings, and other verses that included references to Durga and Lakshmi were expunged.[2][37]

Rajendra Prasad, who was presiding the Constituent Assembly on 24 January 1950, made the following statement which was also adopted as the final decision on the issue:

..The composition consisting of words and music known as Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations as the Government may authorise as occasion arises, and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it. (Applause) I hope this will satisfy members.

Constituent Assembly of India, Vol. XII, 24-1-1950

Performances and interpretations[edit]

The poem has been set to a large number of tunes. The oldest surviving audio recordings date to 1907, and there have been more than a hundred different versions recorded throughout the 20th century. Many of these versions have employed traditional South Asianclassicalragas. Versions of the song have been visualised on celluloid in a number of films, including Leader, Amar Asha, and Anand Math. It is widely believed that the tune set for All India Radio station version was composed by Ravi Shankar.[29]Hemant Kumar composed music for the song in the movie Anand Math in 1952 Many singers like Lata Mangeshkar , K.S.Chithra sung made it cult classic . [38] In 2002, BBC World Service conducted an international poll to choose ten most famous songs of all time. Around 7000 songs were selected from all over the world. Vande Mataram, from the movie Anand Math, was ranked second.[39] All India Radio's version and some other versions are in Deshraga.[40]

Vande Mataram Ar Rehmann Song Telugu 2017

In July 2017, the Madras High Court ruled that the Vande Mataram shall be sung or played at least once a week in all schools, universities and other educational institutions of Tamil Nadu. The Court also ruled that the song should be played or sung in government offices and industrial facilities at least once a month.[41]

Vande Mataram Ar Rahman Mp3

See also[edit]

  • Anandmath—The novel from which Vande Mataram gained popularity
  • Jana Gana Mana—the Indian national anthem


  1. ^sometimes transcribed as ধর্ম
  2. ^sometimes transcribed as মর্ম
  3. ^Sanskrit transliteration 'Vande'
  4. ^Sanskrit transliteration 'varadāṃ'
  5. ^Sanskrit transliteration 'Dvisaptakoṭībhujaidhṛtakharakaravāle'
  6. ^Sanskrit transliteration 'Avalā'
  7. ^Sanskrit transliteration 'vale'
  8. ^Sanskrit transliteration 'Vahuvaladhārinīṃ'
  9. ^Sanskrit transliteration 'Ripudalavārinī'
  10. ^Sanskrit transliteration 'vidyā'
  11. ^Sanskrit transliteration 'Tvaṃ'
  12. ^Sanskrit transliteration 'Vāhute'
  13. ^Sanskrit transliteration 'Tvaṃ'
  14. ^Sanskrit transliteration 'Vānī'
  15. ^Sanskrit transliteration 'vidyādāẏinī'
  16. ^Sanskrit transliteration 'tvaṃ'
  17. ^Sanskrit transliteration 'Vande'
  1. ^See, for example, Rigveda 1.27.1; Sanskrit: अश्वं न त्वा वारवन्तं वन्दध्या अग्निं नमोभिः । सम्राजन्तमध्वराणाम् ॥१॥ Wikisource
  2. ^The Assamese version, re-translated into English, reads:[27]
    'O my own land,
    O my dear land,
    O my dear land,
    A land bedecked with gentle streams,
    A land that adorned with heavenly beauty,
    It is such a motherland.' – Lakshminath Bezbarua, Translated into English by A Mazumdar
  3. ^This view of Gandhi was not isolated. In another interview, he said, 'a song that carried such glorious associations of sacrifice as “Vandemataram” could never be given up. It would be like discarding one’s mother. But they could certainly add a new song or songs like the one mentioned to their repertoire of national songs after due thought and discrimination.'[35]


  1. ^ abcDiana L. Eck (2012). India: A Sacred Geography. New York: Random House (Harmony Books). pp. 95–97. ISBN978-0-385-53190-0.
  2. ^ abcThe National FlagArchived 16 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Volume 76, June 27, 1939, pages 68–70 with footnote 1 on page 69
  3. ^Sabyasachi Bhattacharya (2003). Bande Mataram, the Biography of a Song. Penguin Books. pp. 17–24. ISBN978-0-14-303055-3.
  4. ^S. K. BOSE (2015). Bankim Chandra Chatterji. Publications Division Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. pp. 88–92. ISBN978-81-230-2269-7.
  5. ^Sabyasachi Bhattacharya (2003). Bande Mataram, the Biography of a Song. Penguin. pp. 1–8, 73–76, 90–99. ISBN978-0-14-303055-3.
  6. ^Ghose, Aurbindo. 'National Song'. Know India. Government of India. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  7. ^Sabyasachi Bhattacharya (2003). Bande Mataram, the Biography of a Song. Penguin. pp. 68–77, 26–29. ISBN978-0-14-303055-3.
  8. ^Sumathi Ramaswamy (2009). The Goddess and the Nation: Mapping Mother India. Duke University Press. pp. 106–108. ISBN978-0-8223-9153-1.
  9. ^ abc'National Song of India'. Government of India. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2008.
  10. ^Sri Aurobindo commented on his English translation of the poem with 'It is difficult to translate the National Anthem of Bengal into verse in another language owing to its unique union of sweetness, simple directness and high poetic force.' cited after Bhabatosh Chatterjee (ed.), Bankim Chandra Chatterjee: Essays in Perspective, Sahitya Akademi, Delhi, 1994, p. 601.
  11. ^ abcBankimcandra Chatterji (2005). Anandamath, or The Sacred Brotherhood. Oxford University Press. pp. 71–78. ISBN978-0-19-803971-6.
  12. ^Aurobindo Mazumdar (2007). Bande Mataram and Islam. Mittal Publications. pp. 18–22, 30–31. ISBN978-81-8324-159-5.
  13. ^Sabyasachi Bhattacharya (2003). Bande Mataram, the Biography of a Song. Penguin Books. pp. 34–37, 81. ISBN978-0-14-303055-3.
  14. ^Sumathi Ramaswamy (2009). The Goddess and the Nation: Mapping Mother India. Duke University Press. pp. 125–142. ISBN978-0-8223-9153-1.
  15. ^'No rules on singing, playing of 'Bande Mataram': Government – Times of India'. The Times of India. Archived from the original on 12 February 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  16. ^ abMonier Monier-Williams, English Sanskrit Dictionary with EtymologyArchived 28 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Oxford University Press, page 919
  17. ^Bankimcandra Chatterji (2005). Anandamath, or The Sacred Brotherhood. Oxford University Press. p. 244. ISBN978-0-19-534633-6.
  18. ^Edward Bispham (2010). Edinburgh Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome. Edinburgh University Press. p. 32. ISBN978-0-7486-2714-1.
  19. ^J. P. Mallory; Douglas Q. Adams (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Taylor & Francis. pp. 385–386. ISBN978-1-884964-98-5.
  20. ^'Vande Mataram in Bengali script'. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  21. ^'Vande Mataram in Romanized Sanskrit'. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  22. ^Bankimcandra Chatterji (23 August 2005). Anandamath, or The Sacred Brotherhood. Oxford University Press. pp. 44–. ISBN978-0-19-534633-6.
  23. ^Aurobindo Mazumdar (2007). Vande Mataram and Islam. Mittal Publications. pp. 4–6. ISBN978-81-8324-159-5.
  24. ^'Sri Aurobindo's VERSE translation of Vande Mataram'. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  25. ^Bhabatosh Chatterjee (ed.), Bankim Chandra Chatterjee: Essays in Perspective, Sahitya Akademi, Delhi, 1994, p. 601.
  26. ^Aurobindo Mazumdar (2007). Vande Mataram and Islam. Mittal Publications. pp. 23–34. ISBN978-81-8324-159-5.
  27. ^Aurobindo Mazumdar (2007). Vande Mataram and Islam. Mittal Publications. pp. 26–27. ISBN978-81-8324-159-5.
  28. ^ abLipner, Julius (2005). Anandamath. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 27–59. ISBN978-0-19-517858-6.
  29. ^ abcdeSuresh Chandvankar, Vande MataramArchived 29 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine (2003) at Musical Traditions (
  30. ^Chakrabarty, Bidyut (1997). Local Politics and Indian Nationalism: Midnapur (1919–1944). New Delhi: Manohar. p. 167.
  31. ^'p2'. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
  32. ^Kranti Geetanjali (Poems of Pt. Ram Prasad 'Bismil'), ISBN81-7783-128-3.
  33. ^*Kranti GeetanjaliISBN81-7783-128-3.
  34. ^Speech at Prayer Meeting (Guwahati, Assam)Archived 16 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, January 10, 1946, page 212
  35. ^Discussion with Political WorkersArchived 16 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, 1945, page 89
  36. ^ abA. G. Noorani (1973), Vande Mataram: A Historical LessonArchived 21 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, EPW, Vol. 8, No. 23 (Jun. 9, 1973), pages 1039–1043
  37. ^Marie Cruz Gabriel (1996). A Silence in the City and Other Stories. Orient Blackswan. pp. 238–240. ISBN978-81-250-0828-6.
  38. ^Pradeep KumarArchived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback
  39. ^The Worlds Top TenArchived 21 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine — BBC World Service
  40. ^'Des: Tunes from the Countryside'. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  41. ^Madras High Court makes Vande Mataram mandatory in schools and collegesArchived 28 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine, India Today (July 25, 2017)
  • Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, Vande Mataram: The Biography of a Song, Penguin Books, 2003, ISBN978-0-14-303055-3.

Further reading[edit]

  • Tagore, Sir Rabindranath (1919) [1916]. The Home and the World. Trans. from Bengali by Surendranath Tagore. London: MacMillan & Co. OCLC228705970. Bande (with a B rather than a V) Mataram plays a great part in this novel about a Bengali family.
  • 'Vande Mataram : Biography of a Song' by Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, Publisher:Penguin, ISBN9780143030553

External links[edit]

Wikisource has original text related to this article:


  • Vande Mataram, Lata Mangeshkar in Anand Math (4:57 minutes)
  • Vande Mataram, Amruta Suresh and Abhirami Suresh (4:36 minutes)
  • Vande Mataram, Group song (1:09 minutes)


Vande Mataram Ar Rahman Lyrics

  • 'National Song' section, Official Portal of the Indian Government
  • How Secular is Vande Mataram?, AG Noorani, Frontline
  • Boycott threat over Indian song, BBC
  • 1937 Congress Resolution on validity of Muslim objection to this song, Outlook India

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